A new one Scientific reports The study proposes an extension of the electron Born self-energy (eBse) model, revealing a mechanism for cosmic inflation driven by a constant potential energy density, thus challenging the conventional cosmological paradigm.
Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades the universe, causing it to expand rapidly. It makes up about 68% of the total energy content of the universe.
Unlike dark matter, dark energy does not cluster but appears uniformly distributed. The nature of dark energy remains poorly understood, and it is often associated with the cosmological constant, represented by the Greek letter .
is a constant energy density in space, initially introduced by Einstein and later reconsidered to explain the observed rapid expansion of the universe, often associated with dark energy.
Traditional cosmological models, such as the CDM model, attribute dark energy to the energy of empty space. In this model, dark energy is considered the intrinsic energy of the vacuum itself, which drives the rapid expansion of the universe observed in recent cosmological studies.
The eBse model, introduced by Dr. Bruce Law from Kansas State University, challenged this paradigm by introducing an alternative explanation for dark energy, suggesting that the energy is associated with the electric field surrounding a finite-sized electron, a concept not considered in the traditional cosmological framework.
This departure from conventional understanding has prompted a re-examination of the mechanisms underlying cosmic inflation and the nature of dark energy.
Cosmic inflation and the CDM model
The author of the study, Dr. Law, explained to Phys.org, “In the standard cosmological paradigm, the expansion of the universe is explained using two separate and distinct theories: cosmic inflation, in early times, and the CDM model, in later times. time.”
Cosmic inflation suggests a rapid and exponential expansion of the universe in its early moments. This theoretical framework aims to solve the shortcomings of the Big Bang by explaining the observed large-scale homogeneity and isotropy of the universe.
Early in the expansion history of the universe, when cosmic inflation was in effect, and temperatures were high enough, photons were converted into electrons and positrons by a process known as creation.
Simultaneously, the reverse process (annihilation) occurs, where electrons and positrons are eliminated into photons. A chemical equilibrium is established, which maintains a balance between the number of photons, electrons, and positrons in a given volume.
As the temperature increases, it reaches the glass transition temperature (TMr), a phase transition occurs, causing the electron-positron plasma to fall out of equilibrium.
This glass transition temperature, denoted TMr = 1.06 1017K, marks a key point in the eBse model. More than TMrthe universe is undergoing exponential acceleration, characterized by a constant potential energy density.
The CDM model, which covers the later stages of the evolution of the universe, describes the large-scale structure by including dark matter and dark energy.
In contrast, the eBse model challenges this paradigm by introducing a different mechanism for cosmic inflation.
The eBse model
Introduced by Dr. Law’s model in 2020. He explains, “Picture the intergalactic space today as a hydrogen atom. This atom can be ionized (protons and electrons) or un-ionized, where the ionization fraction (~50%) accounts for electron’s electric field, which is lacking in the CDM model.”
“My idea comes from thinking that if electrons and positrons have a finite size, there should be changes in physics when tightly packed. So, I extended the model to dense scenarios of electron- positron to check its consistency with astrophysical observations.”
The eBse model introduces a unique framework for understanding cosmic inflation, identifying the temperature (T) as the inflaton and the potential energy density (T) as a plateau potential.
As the universe evolves, the temperature undergoes variations, which influence the behavior of the system. At the same time, (T) described as a plateau potential (a relatively stable region of the potential energy landscape), suggests that the system remains relatively stable and exhibits a constant which is the potential energy state at this temperature range.
This distinct perspective is particularly evident above the glass transition temperature (TMr), where the eBse model naturally induces cosmic inflation, marked by exponential expansion.
Essentially, the plateau potential guides the behavior of the system, ensuring stability within certain temperature ranges. The model seamlessly transitions to the CDM model below a critical temperature (TX), which forms a coherent link between the early and late stages of the evolution of the universe.
In contrast to traditional models, the eBse model effectively addresses the shortcomings associated with cosmic inflation. This eliminates the need for tuning parameters and offers clear calculations for potential and kinetic energy densities, improving its explanatory power.
Model validation and future work
Emphasized by Dr. Law, “My model (for the cosmic inflation period) is consistent with the Planck collaboration 2013 findings for cosmic inflation. My model is comparing it directly to the temperature fluctuations of the CMB.”
Looking ahead, he sees the eBse model as offering a comprehensive description of the expansion history of the universe, challenging the Standard Model and the conventional cosmological paradigm.
In particular, the eBse model competes with the CDM model, with comparisons against astrophysical measurements and a particular study of the CMB temperature fluctuations in the pipeline.
While the eBse model is promising, its current incompleteness prompts exploration, addressing issues such as photonic transport and quantum fluctuations. Recognized by Dr. Law’s overly simplistic nature highlights the ongoing journey towards refining and expanding this model.
The findings of the study were published in Scientific reports.
Bruce M. Law, Proposed physical mechanism producing cosmic inflation, Scientific reports (2023). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-023-49106-0.
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Citation: The eBse model: A new perspective on dark energy and inflation (2023, December 19) retrieved 21 December 2023 from https://phys.org/news/2023-12-ebse-perspective-dark -energy-inflation.html
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